PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUN: name of a person, place, or idea

A singular noun refers to only one person, place, thing, or idea.

A plural noun refers to more than on person, place, thing, or idea.

A non-count noun cannot be made plural.

Common nouns name general people, place, things, and ideas.

Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, and ideas. Capitalize proper nouns.

A noun has 6 jobs: subject noun, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, predicate noun, and noun of direct address

SN The subject noun is who or what the sentence is about.

DO The direct object receives the action of the verb and completes the meaning of the sentence.

IO  The indirect object tells to whom or for whom the action is done.  The indirect object receives the direct object.

OP  The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun which follows the preposition.

PN  Predicate nouns renames the subject adn are linked to the subject with  a linking verb.

NDA  A noun of direct address identifies to whome a sentence is directed. Separate anoung of the direct address fromt eh rest of the sentence with a comma.


ADJECTIVES
Adjectives modifiy nouns and pronouns.

Adjectives answer: What kind? How many? Which ones? Whose?

A  A, an the- the tiny article adjectives that mark nons and answer the question Which?
        The article "a" is used before a consonant.
         The article "an" is used before a vowel.

PNA A possessive noun adjective shows owership and answers the question Whose?
    To turn a noun into a singular possessive noun adjective, add an apostrophe followed by an S.

    To turn a noun into a plural possessive noun adjective, add an S to make the noun plrual and then adda an apostrophe. If the noun has an irregualr plural use an apostrophe followed by an S.

PA Predicate adjective describe the subject and are linked to the subject with a linking verb.

PA  A predicate adjective decribes the subject and are linked the subject with a linking verb.


VERBS
A verb shows action, links a description to the subject, or helps another verb.
To find a verb, go to the subject and ask:What is being said about  this?

AV  Action verbs show actions like run and shout, sit and think.

TV A transitive verb trasfers the action fo the verb to the direct object.
    DO The direct object receives the actions of hte vern an completes the meaning of the sentence.
    IO  The indirect object tell to whom or for whom the action is done. l The indirect object receives the direct object.
LV A linking verb connects the subject to additional information about the subject.  It may link a noun, pronoun. or an adjective to the subject.
      PN Predicate nouns rename the subject and are linked to the subject with a linking verb.
     PA Predicate adjectives descrie the subject and are linked to the subject with a linking verb.

ADVERBS

An adverb modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb.  Adverbs answer: How? When" Where? To what
extent?

PREPOSITIONS

A preposition links a noun or a pronoun to the rest of the sentence.

    OP The object of the preposition is the noun or pornoun which follows the preposition. To find the object of the preposition, go to the preposition and ask:     what?    or    whom?

PRONOUNS

A pronoun takes the place of a noun.

     SP A subject pronoun takes the palce fo subject noun:  I, you, he, she, it, we, they.
    OP An object pronoun takes the place of an object noun: me, you, him, her, it, us, them.
    PPA Possessive pronoun adjectives take the place of possessive noun adjectives: my, mine, your, yours,     his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their theirs.

CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentesnces together.  There are two types of conjunctions: coordinating and subordinating.

C Coordinating conjunctions connect related words, phrases, or sentences togherther.  Use a comma efore a coordinating conjunction: and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so.

SC Subordinating conjunctions join two sentences together by turning one sentence into a dependent clause or sentence fragment.
When a sentence begins with a dependent clause, separate it with a comma.
When a sentence ends with a dependent clasue, no comma is needed.

INTERJECTIONS

Interjections show strong emotion.  They can stand alone.
I Separate an interjection from the rest of the sentence with a comma or an exclamation point.  If using an exclamation point, capitalize the next word in the sentence. 
 

Contact: bjacobson@usc.k12.mn.us